The Commune : A Film Review


The Commune

Director, Thomas Vinterberg, Writer, Tobias Lindholm, Cast, Anna, (Trine Dyrholm) father, Erik, (Ulrich Thomsen) and daughter, Freya, (Martha Sofie Wallstrom Hansen) Emma (Helene Reingaard Neumann) Allon (Fares Fares) Ole (Lars Ranthe) Mona (Julie Agnete Vang), Ditte (Anne Gry) Steffen (Magnus Millang). Denmark/Sweden/Netherlands. 2016. 1hr 52 mins. Cert. 15.

The Commune – do they exist!

If you’ve ever been to, known someone who has, or heard tell of the world of Communes this is both for you and them.   It not in the least like, presumably, any you may have had previous experience of though. This is set in the 1970’s on the outskirts of Copenhagen, in a rich heirloom mansion.  Erik the university lecturer, whose father has bequeathed it, has his own wife and child.  These gorgeous pastoral surroundings are to be home of a select combination all agreeing arrangements on sharing costs, having some investment in the venture/adventure and freedom of choice on future living.  They are a bunch of friends and acquaintances who share the rat race abandonment with wishes of new age existence.  It requires a large dose of suspension of reality, verging on adopting fairy tale lives, as the idealism needed in most cases, sects, cults, guru, shaken, kibbutz, types have inherent problems as most alternative societies do.  Take Aldous Huxleys The Island, as utopian living, or any dystopian fiction with a narrative such as Margaret Attwoods of alternative existences and the societal divisions they already by way of isolation, set in train.  This Kollectiv is not entirely a failure as an experiment much depending on and enabled by the mix having knowledge of each other to begin with and external encounters go on at a minimal level, schools, jobs etc. about much further on.


The main trio are mother, Anna, (Trine Dyrholm) father, Erik, (Ulrich Thomsen) and daughter, Freya, (Martha Sofie Wallstrom Hansen).


The basic configuration or notion of living together is a post-agrarian age of living with an age range from elderly, grandparents, defendants, through the procreating couples and relationships within the group, to the children and their own basis as a focus of a self determined future.  The education part is key but in this that is left not to home schooling as at there is only one child here except a boy, nine year old, who is very ill and does stand slightly to the side in the construct of this commune.  Freya is on the cusp of adulthood 14, and just about able for it except this set of arrangements, fresh as they are to everyone, are a bit of a timebomb going off in her head.  If you take Freya as the key person for you to enter the film you will not be disappointed.  If you chose to empathise with and adopt one character which you may of may not connect with then that too will be rewarding.  Can you picture yourself as part of the group? is one of the foremost questions.  Should you flip or sit back exclusive of the group these choices reflect the choices the Commune are making themselves.  It is a bit of a dog rough type of Commune and in Copenhagen – I hope the gentrification of the city village never took place – the Christainia Garden Village in Copenhagen is a famous large alternative ‘Kollectiv’ autonomous group setting which stood against the commercial and industrial direction with a people based needs based peaceful society infrastructure.  It to had its troubles internally and rubbed against but existed alongside the municipal world on its doorstep.  Even outsiders could come and go with the preset of not disturbing the principles that grew and flourished as a kind of amorphous sense of hope.  That was the engaging part for those not choosing to live this way but to experience it at a non-commital way.


Aims and needs

Thomas Vinterberg movies The Celebration (1998) and The Hunt (2014) and Festen were far more serious and demanding though this, despite its friendly appearance as some sort of sideline feature film, has a surprising intensity as it develops taking with it the confrontation of choices and meanings of freedoms shared and spaces expanded.  You could have an emotional breakdown just watching it if you empathise too closely – you need your own space dude.   The concept comes from the most dynamic and complex character Anna, whose portrayal by Trine Dyrholm is stunningly visceral and haunting.  She puts forward the suggestion to Freya and Erik then a group comprising first – with the help of Freja, she talks Erik into accepting – Allon (Fares Fares – I know I don’t believe it either!) a tall well set teary one, Ole (Lars Ranthe) drinker, laidback Mona (Julie Agnete Vang), deep thinker Ditte (Anne Gry Henningsen) and soft touch Steffen (Magnus Millang). Anna herself is a TV news anchor and she intends and does carry on with this as Erik carries on with his lectureship in – it’s important you note the nuance, well not really but architectural types like myself do, the Rational Architecture specialism he advances.  Consider if you will, if the subject suits his approach to life.  I made that enquiry.  His personality is not one of a creator but analyser and shaper. Fundamental as it is, he has a tendency to be tangential, cantankerous and overbearing.  With Anna he has found to his credit a woman of remarkably sympathetic,idealist, virtuous, generous and open outlook.  As well as possessing a typical Danish clarity of beauty and softness of touch together with a figure which would make a priest consider again his choices.  The film does not so much compartmentise individual characters but has a deft touch showing their positions as seen within a group.  Of other Commune films of the same era it’s worth noting the Swedish year 2000 model Together which took the comic line.


The big test.

Anna has a problem which Erik brings.  Both are in need of each other but Erik presses his sexual needs and egotistical needs on one of his Rational Architectural students.  Emma (Helene Reingaard Neumann) is half his age and has the beauty and edge of a Briget Bardot, Julie Ege or blonde fairytale goddess.  She fills his new life as his former life may have been with Anna except Anna is still his partner.  This as how Anna believes it now is.  Therein lies the dilemma or new age element of ‘Kollectiv’.  It is not meant to be a facility where men can have multiple partners and women equal to the same freedoms, but is a shared existenance relying on fidelity of the societal form and without crossover of the physical connections made.  The permissiveness of sexual freedoms were not only the new normal of the times in a commune setting but in the wider context also.  As people lived longer so their need for change happened to alter their psyche.  The complex commitments began to unravel as emotional heights never confronted before in this way manifested.  Take modern life and place it in these situations and you will make the connections so well drawn by the devil net, experience of our Director and Ensemble cast.  The script is handled by Tobias Lindholm director of War and his failure is apparent to me in not placing enough social context or liberating the sexual politics or developing more convincingly one or two of the other characters and their viewpoints.  It seems to stagnate but paradoxically brilliantlily in the trio of the family plus one. All of which points to the proper basis being a ten episode Scandinavian TV noir series. Even more intervention of the prominence of TV in revolution or in our case petty domestic squabbles taken out of all sense of proportion.


How will it work?

The Commune is an examination of the times and the democratisation of a world connected by television – the media Anna exists in reporting daily on Pol pot – 2.30 – Vietnam – 3.00 – Civil Rights – entering everyone’s lives.  The fact TV advanced these visions and alternative theories of previously held political – meaning wisdom as the definition goes – is Tv = demonstration.  The TV takes to the streets and activism is erupting everywhere including opt out.

The film is emotionally arresting and the concept of ‘commune’ itself is explored through the relationships.  The young boy, a child of one of the couples is terminally ill and it comes as part of the hard unavoidable reality components, inescapable wherever.  Those whose fate is in a larger space find they are the ones offering the other ‘space’, space to have another, additional relationship.  It actual points to the probability it is not the offering of space to another but permission as it happens to invade yours.

It doesn’t take a political theorist to come up with a concept of parallel worlds and how they met as contests in society over the leaders and democratic mechanisms fighting for supremacy.  Whose supremacy?  Whose ideals?  Whose guru, whose religions?  As local philosopher Van the Man said, No Guru, No Religion.  Other titles emerging out of those same times from Van Morrison include, after the sex -Astral Weeks – the commune – Tupelo Honey – Beautiful Vision, Common One, Inarticulate speech of the Heart, Wavelength. Those titles speak of change.  I add the note VM thought the best to be, and presumably still does, Common One.


Conclusion. ####4

I thoroughly went with this film on its time scale, limited scoping range.  As I said it would have, could develop the other relationship portraits more thoroughly.  In fact just a bit would have helped but the primary focus is Anna whose pivotal location as firstly the idea generator, the mother, lover, betrayed, lost, brings quote a lot of issues  and startling effective delivery.  Thomas Vinterberg uses his story and camera very very skillfully as a depiction of the times.  Filmed apparently with a HD video camera this also is homage in cinema to the filmmakers of that era and experimentation.  The film works on so many levels and will remain a good maker for the depiction of an earlier time seen through commune, idealist mostly, partially times. Totally recommended.


John Graham

28 July 2016


on at QFT Belfast from 29 July to 4 August 2016.

rated 15.


Chevalier : A Film Review

Chevalier. Directed by Athina Rachel Tsangari. Greece. English subtitles. Duration. 105 mins. Cert. 18. Written by Athina Rachel Tsangari and Efthymis Filippou.

Makis Papadimitriou, Yiorgos Kendros, Panos Koronis, Vangelis Mourikis, Efthymis Papadimitriou, Yorgos Pirpassopoulos, Sakis Rouvas, Giannis Drakopoulos, Nikos Orphanos, Kostas Filippoglou.

Synopsis of sorts

The short synopsis provided by a film theatre does a fine job.  As follows. During a week-long excursion on a luxury yacht, six men decide to pass th time by engaging in a game to determine which of them is ‘The Best in Genral’. As the competition escalates through a series of increasingly bizarre contests – which range from deck-swabbing to sleep posture to IKEA assembly – God sportsmanship goes out the window as the men jockey for position.  My blog is intended as additional background without divulging much more than the forementioned.  It tells of the psychology at work, the important pre-existing relationships and of course something about how the Director, Writer, Actors, obtain your interest and entertain.  It is also very funny in stretches as the ‘games’ develop.  Another attendee thought it slow, as I also mention further on, but I think maybe the ‘men’ jokes which I imagine Athina Rachel Tsangari, harvesting over a glass or two of wine with her girlfriends what they might imagine men testing each other with – the funnier for outcome sake – the better.

Director of the finest contemporary auteur order

In 2010 with the film Attenburg, (a mispronounce of Dear David Att..) it was apparent a perceptive social commentary of contemporary Greek life had arose in the form of Athina Rachel Tsangari with an assured grip on technique, abstraction, suspension, all propelled by a tight group of young actors themselves unattached to the mores of the uniform diet of cinema within their nations grasp. This was also followed by what I have to say is an amalgam of cinema, art, drama, and with theatrical intimacy in The Capsule, 2012, which separated, as this film does with men, women into a gender extrapolation as they exist in parallel worlds and own values and rules of conduct.  Here comes a totally different construct with several men in a boat owned by an elderly Doctor  (Yorgos Kendros).  The close proximity of a shared holiday and depredations, rebonding together and as an aside or perhaps even their aim, seeking to know the others form as men for whatever it means and obtain the same about themselves.

The pairings or closeness of the men.

The 6 well to do men have connections in pairs you might say.  The Doctor has a colleague, the unsuccessful suitor as in-law Christo – a well known Greek figure as singer, (Sakis Rouvas).  The next pairing being long standing business partners, the bearded pair  Yorgos (Panos Koronis) and Josef (Vangelis Mourikis) whose exchanges already are tests of each other’s strengths and weaknesses succeeding mainly because of a dignity of evenhanded see practices over decades. Each character shows us how they relate – first through these longer relationships – then as they go on solo runs as it were establishing new or imagined hierarchies.

The pairing of the Doctor and Christos is hinged also to the brothers Yannis (Yorgos Pirpassopoulos) the Doctors actual son in-law, and Dimitris (Makis Papadimitriou) a brother whose dependencies are due to a form of unexplained autism which has him living at home with his their mother and who requires to be twinned in the accommodation with his over-confident brother. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune – some attainment of wealth brings them to a luxury onyx marble walled palatial floating marine hotel.  It is very quickly the case of discovering any issues they, each, have is caught inside, condensed and compressed into a large glass bottle with the lid tightly fixed like a Kinder jar.  An amount of OCD appears. Also  Neurosis, Narcissim, Paranoia, thankfully no psycotic, psychosis I disclose for the overly concerned – ratings must divulge levels of violence anyway. There is a Captain and two crew, cook/chef and gofer, commischef in attendance whose presence is not entirely secondary as they facilitate certain discretionary and have their own outlook on life which they funnily replicate the game which has the 6 transfixed as they reach the end of their otherwise spear fishing, water sports, occupied holiday.  I wanted to use the line – he’s had more issues than the New Yorker but it doesn’t adhere to any of them, as far as me thinks.

Yorgos asks Christo
Magnificent ancient civilised location.

The Aegean is a majestic place which Athina Rachel Tsangari cleverly conscripts to place the tale as a timeless study; modern refinements of a comfortable well provisioned boat and assortment of toys at their disposal aside, of male machismo and foibles.  Astutely she fashions a set of parameters; the Captain retains separation with tan not announcements modestly humorous unwittingly of weather forecasts, today will be .. 9 reaching high 20’s .. Please notify any of the crew should you propose to dive later.  The exchanges follow a shore bound spear-fishing exercise which has each party except for Dimitris wet-suited approach a deserted stony beach with their floats, fish and spears.  They separately kill, Octopus, Calimari, and the bream etc, caught before returning together triumphantly satiated with hunter zeal  to the yacht.  There they co-operate in removing the suits as a joint ritual, they then do the round table after fishing talk of the recentl thrill sharing their own separate versions and comparing their sense of the sea ad its purpose.  It is a striking entry and with the sometimes out of focus camera tracing their movements in the beginning in this the merging heat filled environment, who begin emerging as distinct characters with a range of issues.  None immense, if you consider they have devices to manage them for their and they’re companies dignity and are relatively tolerated.  The psycologogy of males interests both the writer and she asks us to concede, with ease, the group share the same curiosity for self or other more obtuse reasons.  Certainly the pairings exact tensions even though there is no visible or extension of mental bonds on the surface for anyone to take into account.  It is when they embark on the authors device of challenging each other to obtain their status within the general scheme of things they embark on the strange game of ‘The Best in General’.  It is the trophy sentiment of the title which is a contest to conquest over their fellow compatriots.


The friendships alliances are set the test of scrutinizing every aspect of their behaviour, from their physical appearance, self management, resistance to temptation, manner of speaking, addressing strangers or companions, sharing of intimate details of their lives to some degree, of erudition and learned skills such as meal preparation and all degrees of civility or culpability in between.  And there is an ongoing fertility exam of the erection kind which has various meas of delivery of proof of content.  Along with the Doctor lead medical exam which Dimitris displays a phobias to and his   is to provide an entertainment interlude which is to be judged as all things are judged under each mans watchful eye. There are genuinely serious singular internalised torments held inside each of the characters heads.  If you think long enough you will grasp a dilemma of some seriousness image within each person.  One fellow watcher said it was very slow to get going, had little to interest the youthful her, and it was damned with faint praise because of its eccentric European vibe.  It is after all of enough substance to attain Best Film at the London Film Festival. 

Alternative over informative views

Reviewers I have now read concerning this film spend too much type on telling you the entire story, not its shape of comparative states of entry to it but one even gives a blow by blow account of the completion of the spoils referencing the hole shebang and frankly it does not even come close do doing any, any part of the film or the Directors sense of the male construct – physical content defrocked, or any sense of place in contemporary life in this part of Europe.  The abandoned resort hotel which is a large part of the central location of the film doesn’t get a mention – (I saved that bit! – it’s not a spoiler in ant event!) but it is as annoying as bejesus to have that seen as a valid review given its overt dependence on – looking at, noting word for word repartee?  Everyone will come away with favourite lines, there are plenty of gems to choose from, and many surprises and individual performances and formidablely questioning scenes ar invested in by actors for our study and interpretation.  It is beautiful in that sense – that you go with it and find out about the characters I have the beginning loosened you into by describing some elements of already existing relations that add value to the concentration required in the minutiae of detail, cinematographer editor and camera person dispose for the Director, Writers on the story.

Conclusion ####4

A excellent entertaining psychological mind twisting drama.  Loving written, tender realisation in a sun splitting post Ancient Greece, neuvo post EU crash austerity almost criminal disregard of a nation by its neighbours despite their all along know tax discrepancies – who in the EU watched on?  Turned a blind eye and left the vultures in.  This is periferally addressed by the use of a once luxurious sea fronting hotel slap bang in the midst of the azure Aegean.  Reflections on self are made and on others via. comical inquisitive games which touch raw nerves as well as expose the realties existing – an iceberg analogy is not misplaced with the visible public multi-faceted self the top while underneath are the – and there are possible connections made in reference to the experiences of each individual to actual diving – vulnerabilities ever present.

Athina Rachel Tsangari is a very gifted all rounder with a mind plundering the male and female psyche and the allegiances, separations, risks and rewards taken and with an insightful magical way of developing the themes around an apparent story of men enjoying each other’s company away from conventional pressures and indulging in sports or explorations which are the stuff possible of younger energetic souls.  It’s complex and emotionally intelligent despite the presence of the ‘make up girls weird games’ possible trawl which my imagined generator for the different weird aspects.   Some culinary tips no doubt correct are snippets of finessing story relationships along with the boat owner – the Doctor – having an outward control while underlying problems emerge.  He and Christos use fitness rowing machines – not like Srs Steve Redgrave and Matthew Pinset – more routine and this is typical as a a means of proposing your insight to character being lead by nuances and otherwise – the use of games makes the viewer adopt it is suggested – the same queries seen.

Very watchable but slightly hard to get into – empathy on my part counts – and a rewarding watch.  Not a massively mind shifting experience but certain to make you rearrange some thoughts, allow some slack or give further thought to otherwise ‘for appearances sake’ propositions.  Excellent.  Music is excel

Net also but early very compelling bass, garage, loose funk as they get on the boat after their beach landing is not followed up unfortunately – nor is there the mercurial Vangelis Papathounoisious music utilised.  I can tell you the ending song is byChessingtons greatest and beautiful.  There is a soxties Karaoke very good insert which you will remember long after i imagine.

John Graham

20 July 2016


On at QFT Belfast from Froday 22 July to 28 July 2016.  On general UK release. I wonder if Mark Kermode likes it?  It’s occasionally his excuse he’s forgetting minor things as Mayo quizzes him on his industrial strength film prober mind.

His take on the last film I reviewed The Neon Demon was by his account worthy of its mixed – I like mixed opinions he proposed (a bit of a guide I think between those who ‘watched it’ and those who viewed it) – reception.  It was fairly and plainly not as worthy as many make it out to be.  One was completely off the mark saying it could become a cult classic.  It was unfortunately unrewarding and a waste of the talent on view.

The Neon Demon : A Film Review

The Neon Demon

Directed by Nicolas Winding Refn Produced by Lene Børglum Nicolas Winding Refn Screenplay by Mary Laws Nicolas Winding Refn Polly Stenham Story by Nicolas Winding Refn. Cast. Elle Fanning, Karl Glusman, Jena Malone, Bella Heathcote, Abbey Lee, Christina Hendricks, Keanu Reeves.  Music by Cliff Martinez Cinematography Natasha Braier Edited by Matthew Newman. Cert. 18. Duration 1hr 57mins. USA/France/Denmark co-production.

 Horror is not a good fashion look. (The above is!)

The Neon Demon is a 2016 internationally co-produced psychological horror film directed by Nicolas Winding Refn, co-written by Mary Laws, Polly Stenham, and Refn.  It follows an aspiring model in Los Angeles whose beauty and youth place her jealous conflict with her co-industry aspirants.  Even the players of the behind the camera roles place her as an enemy.
The pages of fashion magazines need new product displayed on the captivating physical presence of beauty such as the Elle Fannig character here Jesse.  Unencumbered by a lack of self belief or confidence she almost automatically tunes into the model world she has embarked on in the opening 16th year of her life, seeming destined by choice to become a supermodel with whatever besides her looks it takes.  The world of modeling according to Director and Production company lead, Nicolas Winding Refn, who is unsurprisingly on a path of female psyche and force of horror employed in a contemporary world removed from the tame The Devil Wears Prada.  They do a nice very comfortable black slip on shoe so the Devil is a conformist these days.  Bella Heathcote as Gigi and Abbey Lee as Sarah are installed as the pair of horror monster models as jealous as hell of the monochrome photographer, bypassing them and selecting her for special treatment, which results in an audition at a fashion designers misoginist casting.  Ignoring each woman as he looks for the perfection he sees in the post Lolita nymph like Jesse he dismisses all others and a calamity befalls the rejected.


Bella Heathcote

Born troopers 

Sarah and Gigi have a very thin foliage to match their very thin and tall raw beauty.  They are in anyone’s eyes as beautiful and perfect as the magazines and runways ought to need for this cosmetic circus.  Mostly in ill fitting, clothes and absurd facial makeup with for this film an emphasis on bondage, leather costume, they have little to play with and add were possible a sense of character, especially in Bella Heathcotes part as an Australian who is too vunerable to self reflection – and as Fifty Shades Darker is a role soon filled by her it is a touch sardonic whereas Abbey Lee (Kershaw)  flushed with blond looks and sultry stare employed in Mad Max : The Fury, is only able to play with wit alongside her Australian beauty.  Elle Fanning has a difficult role cast firstly as a malleable youth, with looks almost prepubescent and waves of blond curls and feigned awkwardness along with youthful knowing.  Her parents are non-existent, literally, and her only foil is a male pal of the same sort of age but with a driving license, who has the role of feeding her ambition and allaying some insecurities until he becomes himself more knowledgable of the environment of West Hollywood and the Los Angeles culture.  Jesse is at times, usually off call more of a natural teenager and this is I suppose a purposeful contrast used on instruction or shear wise move acting.  It provides her with a scope to train emotions into what sometimes might be called reality until it goes off tangentially on a peculiar ‘video music centered’ dreamscape or sub-textural plot thickening mush. Her own child like good looks are partly convincing as the ‘perfection status’ is cast as beguiling but it is random and over employed.  To such an extent it is not fashion or photography – the core industry necessity – but this directors moving image contest of poetic filmaking which frankly is a bit of a void which a very good professional photographer would have had more ingenuity with. Stand up Australian Danish French English photographers who are true masters of the unusual.

Abbey Lee (Kershaw)

Plot thinning with Music thickening

This film is very poor on narrative and has only the lonely path of rising to a pinnacle in a short time which causes insane jealousy and in some cases derangement which unhinged the horror element.  Fast and slick this construct is flawed in aping as a segmented piece the music instead of story heralding any change of tack.  It follows from the Dorectorsxown previous history with advertising, music video short filled episodic film making.  It consequently has a very good score with initially heavy industrial house leading us in expectation of something special.  It promises through one entry to a party performance piece that falls flat on its own pretentions.  In Holy Motors a video holographic episode is handled with a narrative edge. The music even dies away as a visual companion entering into gothic electronic somber sobriety fairly quickly as we are invited to afford gravitas and complicit narcissism along with the menagerie of the composite fashion industry.  I also thought the facial paintwork and body paint far off the scale of portraiture offered in aperiodof professional photography have a lot have moved on from.

Horror elements

Fifty shades of derangement are appropriated as the roles of male svengalis strive to obtain and some of the women, what they haven’t got.  The looks or beauty of Jesse.  Or try to debase it while controlling the verve or visual ‘narrative’ cloyingly.  The place for blood is in shiny interiors so .. that’s delivered .. the place for glamour is the hilltop Ruby (played by Jena Malone who has a good time and a role to get her teeth into) house sits with pool Chanel decor and decadent and fashion styling out of its skin.  The vistas are beautifully realised as the moon even puts in a peerless appearance.  Hank (Keanu Reeves) is a Motel manager with a caustic streak and an attitude problem as Dean (Karl Glusman) finds as he chaperones Jesse.  The best shot in my estimation is one where Jesse comes onto the ‘boulevard’ outside the motel and meets Dean whose car is parked under the evening Neon of the street doused in colored light.  Not only descriptive of the Los Angeles Micheal Connoly and legions of writers screen and pulp fiction find so borderline and visceral. It could have been over in half an hour.

Conclusion ###3

This is going to press many buttons for the heady cocktail of superficiality it projects. Some like the ridiculous in film and this sharply spectacularly fits the bill. It is showy but not ironic or plaguristic enough to be a fixed animal.  No real head on its story or for that matter any real idea of insightfulness.  Even Jackie Collins came to mind as the sleazy side was as buttoned down thinly coated realism given its LA look.  Very graphic and uncompromising in its unfolding hate conspiracy it has, as mentioned earlier, an episodic feel with the music signaling a change of plot line or new look to impart a direction of travel.  The house music is intensely invigorating and pretty decent as a vehicle but it cannot hide a rather unchallenging film.  The epitome of good taste is bad taste and this descent blurs the boundaries.  Irony is too obvious a move as is vacuous juxtaposition of beauty – an animal in its magnificence does appear! – in all its forms.  Ruby is excellent as are the other females in the cast but the men play it cliched including KR who is more of a cowboy than a Motel manager.  Christine Hendricks has a very short role and ever her deadpan sardonic wide expansive curvy beauty doesn’t get much to be delivered through its briefity. Her looks alone would make celibate priests question their vocations devotions.    Of limited appeal.

John Graham 
6 July 2016

From Friday 15th July to Thursday 28th July 2016 inclusive at Queens Film Theatre BELFAST.